Complicarles la vidauna visión económica y financiera de las redes de tarjetas amarillas y rojas de los equipos de fútbol español

  1. Mourão, Paulo Reis 1
  2. Jesyca Salgado Barandela 2
  1. 1 Universidade do Minho

    Universidade do Minho

    Braga, Portugal


  2. 2 niversidad de Santiago de Compostela (España)
Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación

ISSN: 1579-1726 1988-2041

Year of publication: 2024

Issue: 53

Pages: 530-538

Type: Article

More publications in: Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación


A soccer match without the exhibition of yellow or red cards is very uncommon in professional competition. Sanctions for bad behavior by players have ethical implications for the essential rules of healthy competition. On the other hand, the cards displayed are related to strategic factors of the game and they can have significant costs for the teams. The main objective of this work focuses on analyzing the interactions, patterns and determinants of the relationships that occur between the teams based on the disciplinary sanctions given and received. We study the seasons of the Spanish Professional Soccer League from 2010/2011 to 2018/2019, utilizing complex network analysis. We consider the value of the teams' transfers and the referee's profile as determining factors. Our major evidence suggests there has been a downtrend in the number of cards exhibited in the matches throughout the seasons, although there have been stable fee revenues for the organizer (RFEF). We also identify different profiles of referees able to increase the number of cards exhibited to some particular teams. We also observe that teams usually competing for the same rank tend to participate in matches with a higher number of exhibited cards, but financial similarities between the competing teams are not as significant for explaining the aggressiveness/exposure in the matches.

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