Análisis del consumo de tabaco y factores asociados entre estudiantes y profesionales de enfermería

  1. García Suárez, Mario
Dirixida por:
  1. Daniel Fernández García Director

Universidade de defensa: Universidad de León

Fecha de defensa: 27 de outubro de 2023

  1. María Nélida Fernández Martínez Presidente/a
  2. Santiago Martínez Isasi Secretario
  3. Salvador Postigo Mota Vogal

Tipo: Tese


Introduction: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality and premature death in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that smoking cessation interventions carried out by health professionals are a fundamental factor in tobacco control. Both students and professionals in the health sciences occupy a strategic position in smoking prevention, but tobacco use among them has a negative impact on the likelihood of providing smoking cessation counselling. Objective: the general objective was to analyze the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about smoking among nursing students at the University of León and nursing professionals at the University Hospital of León. Methodology: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire among nursing students of the University of León and nursing professionals of the University Hospital of León. The questionnaire was designed according to the recommendations of the WHO European Regional Office and consisted of a total of 24 questions. Approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee for the study to be carried out, as well as the signature of informed consent by the participants. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for variables associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use in the study was 16.5%, with 14.5% and 19.1% of students and professionals using tobacco respectively. The level of physical dependence on nicotine was low in both groups, as well as a moderate motivation on the part of the participants to try to quit smoking. Regarding the level of knowledge of pathologies that could be directly or indirectly caused by smoking, professionals obtained better results than students, although the latter significantly improved their level of knowledge as they increased their year of education. The attitudes and beliefs of students and professionals were conditioned in those who were smokers. Finally, with regard to the training and action of professionals in smoking cessation, students in the final years of training showed "knowledge of strategies and methods to help patients to stop smoking" to a greater extent than those in the first year, and among professionals, 50.8% agreed with this statement. Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking among students and professionals in both cases included the variable exposure to smoke-laden environments in the last few days as a predictor. Conclusions: the prevalence of tobacco use in nursing students and professionals coincided with the prevalence of smoking described in our country for these groups, adding a low physical dependence on nicotine and a moderate motivation to quit smoking, which would mean that the implementation of specific interventions could lead to a decrease in tobacco users. On the other hand, developing clinical simulation techniques could favour the development of critical thinking and skills in smoking cessation among students and professionals, which with the support of monitoring in academic training could detect training weaknesses and lead to changes in methodology