Underage Problem Gamblingwith whom, where and why.

  1. Antonio Ria
  2. Javier Mora-Salgueiro
  3. Sandra Feijóo
  4. David Liñares
  5. Teresa Braña

ISSN: 0214-9915 1886-144X

Ano de publicación: 2023

Volume: 35

Número: 2

Páxinas: 140-148

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.7334/PSICOTHEMA2022.238 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openAcceso aberto editor

Outras publicacións en: Psicothema


Underage gambling is a widespread phenomenon with its own characteristics that differentiate it from adult gambling. In addition, problem gambling has shown a remarkable prevalence in previous studies. The present study examines underage gambling behaviour, studying its characteristics, as well as motivational and contextual aspects, and estimating the volume of problem gambling and possible moderating variables. Method: A sample of 9,681 students aged between 12 and 17 years old reported their involvement in gambling and filled in the Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS), with 4,617 of them completing a questionnaire about gambling behaviours. Results: Almost a quarter (23.5%) of the students reported having gambled in their lifetime (16.2% in-person, 1.4% online and 6% in both modalities), and 1.9% presented symptoms of problem gambling (BAGS ≥ 4). In-person gamblers preferred sport-betting machines, usually gambled in bars, and did not have their age checked. Online gamblers reported mainly sports betting, doing so on websites and paying with PayPal-like services and credit cards. Most gambled with friends and to win money. Problem gamblers were similar but gambled more frequently. Conclusions: These results present an image of the gambling situation among minors and, more importantly, of its context and related variables.

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Andrie, E. K., Tzavara, C. K., Tzavela, E., Richardson, C., Greydanus, D., Tsolia, M., & Tsitsika, A. K. (2019). Gambling involvement and problem gambling correlates among European adolescents: Results from the European Network for Addictive Behavior study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 54(11), 1429–1441. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00127-019-01706-w
  • Baggio, S., Gainsbury, S. M., Starcevic, V., Richard, J. B., Beck, F., & Billieux, J. (2018). Gender differences in gambling preferences and problem gambling: A network-level analysis. International Gambling Studies, 18(3), 512–525. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2018.1495750
  • Biolcati, R., Mancini, G., & Trombini, E. (2018). Proneness to boredom and risk behaviors during adolescents’ free time. Psychological reports, 121(2), 303–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117724447
  • Calado, F., Alexandre, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Prevalence of adolescent problem gambling: A systematic review of recent research. Journal of gambling studies, 33(2), 397–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-016- 9627-5
  • Cantero, F., & Bertolín, J. M. (2015). Influencia de las nuevas tecnologías en los problemas de juego y en las compras impulsivas en los jóvenes [Influence of new technologies on problem gambling and impulsive buying among young people]. Revista Española de Drogodependencias, 40(4), 34–47. https://www.aesed.com
  • Caselles, P., Cabrera, V., & Lloret, D. (2018). Prevalencia del juego de apuestas en adolescentes. Un análisis de los factores asociados [Prevalence of gambling among adolescents. An analysis of associated factors]. Health & Addictions/Salud y Drogas, 18, 165–173. https://doi.org/10.21134/haaj. v18i2.392
  • Chóliz, M., & Lamas, J. (2017). “¡Hagan juego, menores!” Frecuencia de juego en menores de edad y su relación con indicadores de adicción al juego [“Game On, Minors!” Frequency of gambling in minors and its relationship with indicators of gambling addiction.]. Revista Española de Drogodependencias, 1, 34–47. https://www.aesed.com/es/
  • De Luigi, N., Gibertoni, D., Randon, E., & Scorcu, A. E. (2017). Patterns of Gambling Activities and Gambling Problems Among Italian High School Students: Results from a Latent Class Analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 34(2), 339–359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-017-9694-2
  • Derevensky, J. L., & Gilbeau, L. (2019). Preventing adolescent gambling problems. In Heinz, A., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., Potenza, M. (Eds) Gambling Disorder (pp. 297-311). Springer, Cham. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-030-03060-5_14
  • Dobbie, F., Purves, R., McKell, J., Dougall, N., Campbell, R., White, J., Amos, A., Moore, L., & Bauld, L. (2019). Implementation of a peer-led school based smoking prevention programme: a mixed methods process evaluation. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7112-7
  • Dowling, N. A., Merkouris, S. S., Dias, S., Rodda, S. N., Manning, V., Youssef, G. J., Lubman, D. I., & Volberg, R. A. (2019). The diagnostic accuracy of brief screening instruments for problem gambling: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 74, Article 101784. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cpr.2019.101784
  • Dowling, N. A., Merkouris, S. S., Greenwood, C. J., Oldenhof, E., Toumbourou, J. W., & Youssef, G. J. (2017). Early risk and protective factors for problem gambling: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 109–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cpr.2016.10.008
  • Dowling, N. A., Shandley, K. A., Oldenhof, E., Affleck, J. M., Youssef, G. J., Frydenberg, E., Thomas A., & Jackson, A. C. (2017). The intergenerational transmission of at‐risk/problem gambling: The moderating role of parenting practices. The American Journal on Addictions, 26(7), 707–712. https://doi. org/10.1111/ajad.12599
  • ESPAD Group (2020). ESPAD Report 2019. Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/ jointpublications/espad-report-2019_en
  • García-Ruiz, P., Buil, P., & Solé-Moratilla, M.J. (2016). Consumo de riesgo: menores y juegos de azar online. El problema del “juego responsable” [Risky consumption: minors and online gambling. The problem of “responsible gambling”]. Política y Sociedad, 53(2), 551–575. https://doi. org/10.5209/rev_POSO.2016.v53.n2.47921
  • Gambling Comission (2021). Gambling related harms evidence review. Gambling Comission. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/ gambling-related-harms-evidence-review/gambling-related-harmsevidence-review-summary
  • Gómez, P., Feijóo, S., Braña, T., Varela, J., & Rial, A. (2020). Minors and online gambling: prevalence and related variables. Journal of Gambling Studies, 36(3), 735–745. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09923-3
  • Hinton, P. R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I., & Cozens, B. (2004). SPSS Explained. Routledge.
  • IBM Corp. Released (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 [Statistical software]. IBM Corp.
  • Johnson, E. E., Hamer, R., Nora, R. M., Tan, B., Eisenstein, N., & Engelhart, C. (1997). The Lie/Bet Questionnaire for screening pathological gamblers. Psychological Reports, 80(1), 83–88. https://doi.org/10.2466/ pr0.1997.80.1.83
  • Keen, B., Blaszczynski, A., & Anjoul, F. (2017). Systematic review of empirically evaluated school-based gambling education programs. Journal of Gambling Studies, 33, 301-325. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.56
  • López-González, H., Estévez, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). Can positive social perception and reduced stigma be a problem in sports betting? A qualitative focus group study with Spanish sports bettors undergoing treatment for gambling disorder. Journal of Gambling Studies, 35(2), 571–585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9799-2
  • Mazar, A., Williams, R.J., Stanek, E.J., Zorn, M., & Volberg, R. A. (2018). The importance of friends and family to recreational gambling, at-risk gambling, and problem gambling. BMC Public Health, 18, Article 1080. https://doi. org/10.1186/s12889-018-5988-2
  • Newberry, A. L., & Duncan, R. D. (2001). Roles of Boredom and Life Goals in Juvenile Delinquency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(3), 527– 541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2001.tb02054.x
  • Observatorio Plan Joven Municipal Vitoria-Gasteiz (2019). Jóvenes y juegos de azar. Estudio sobre la participación en juegos de azar de la juventud de Vitoria-Gasteiz [Young people and gambling. Study on participation in games of chance among young people in Vitoria-Gasteiz]. https:// www.vitoria-gasteiz.org/docs/wb021/contenidosEstaticos/adjuntos/ es/44/76/84476.pdf
  • Odame, S.K., Quarshie, E.NB., Oti-Boadi, M., Andoh-Arthur, J., & Asante, K. O. (2021). Adolescent Problem Gambling in Rural Ghana: Prevalence and Gender Differentiation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 37, 83–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09987-6
  • Parke, J., Parke, A., & Blaszczynski, A. (2016). Key Issues in Product Based Harm Minimisation: Examining theory, evidence and policy issues relevant in Great Britain. Technical Report. Responsible Gambling Trust. https://doi. org/10.13140/RG.2.2.30894.10560
  • Pisarska, A., & Ostaszewski, K. (2020). Factors associated with youth gambling: Longitudinal study among high school students. Public Health, 184, 33–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.03.017
  • Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas [PNSD] (2020). Informe 2020 Alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilegales en España. Encuesta sobre uso de drogas en Enseñanzas Secundarias en España (ESTUDES), 1994-2018/2019 [Report 2020. Alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in Spain. Survey of drug use in Secondary Education in Spain (ESTUDES), 1994-2018/2019]. Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas, Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. https://pnsd.sanidad.gob.es/profesionales/sistemasInformacion/ sistemaInformacion/pdf/ESTUDES_2020_Informe.pdf
  • Plan Nacional Sobre Drogas [PNSD] (2022). Informe sobre adicciones comportamentales 2021 [Report on behavioural addictions 2021]. Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas, Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. https://pnsd.sanidad.gob.es/profesionales/ sistemasInformacion/sistemaInformacion/pdf/2021_Informe_adicciones_ comportamentales.pdf
  • Rahman, A. S., Pilver, C. E., Desai, R. A., Steinberg, M. A., Rugle, L., Krishnan-Sarin, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2012). The relationship between age of gambling onset and adolescent problematic gambling severity. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(5), 675–683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jpsychires.2012.02.007
  • Rey-Brandariz, J., Pérez-Ríos, M., Santiago-Pérez, M. I., Lorenzo, M., Malvar, A., & Hervada, X. (2021). Caracterización del juego de azar en Galicia: un problema de Salud Pública [Characterisation of gambling in Galicia: a Public Health Problem]. Adicciones. Advance online publication. https:// doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1613
  • Rossow, I., & Molde, H. (2006). Chasing the criteria: Comparing SOGS-RA and the Lie/Bet screen to assess prevalence of problem gambling and’atrisk’gambling among adolescents. Journal of Gambling Issues, 18, 57–71. https://doi.org/10.4309/jgi.2006.18.9
  • Sharman, S., Murphy, R., Turner, J., & Roberts, A. (2019). Psychosocial correlates in treatment seeking gamblers: Differences in early age onset gamblers vs later age onset gamblers. Addictive Behaviors, 97, 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.05.013
  • Sharp, E. H., Coffman, D. L., Caldwell, L. L., Smith, E. A., Wegner, L., Vergnani, T., & Mathews, C. (2011). Predicting substance use behavior among South African adolescents: The role of leisure experiences across time. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(4), 343–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025411404494
  • Spaeth, M., Weichold, K., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2015). The development of leisure boredom in early adolescence: Predictors and longitudinal associations with delinquency and depression. Developmental Psychology, 51(10), 1380–1394. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039480
  • Stinchfield, R., Wynne, H., Wiebe, J., & Tremblay, J. (2017). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Adolescent Gambling Screen (BAGS). Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 2204. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2017.02204
  • Thomas, J., Mora, K., & Rive, G. (2010). An investigation of the influence of gambling venue characteristics on gamblers’ behaviour. Opus International Consultants Limited, Central Laboratories. https://www.health.govt. nz/system/files/documents/publications/influence-gambling-venuecharacteristics.pdf
  • Tabri, N., Xuereb, S., Cringle, N., & Clark, L. (2021). Associations between financial gambling motives, gambling frequency and level of problem gambling: a meta-analytic review. Addiction, 117(3), 559–569. https://doi. org/10.1111/add.15642
  • Weidberg, S., González-Roz, A., Fernández-Hermida, J. R., Martínez-Loredo, V., Grande-Gosende, A., García-Pérez, Á., & Secades-Villa, R. (2018). Gender differences among adolescent gamblers. Personality and Individual Differences, 125, 38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.031
  • Wood, R. T., & Griffiths, M. D. (2002). Adolescent perceptions of the National Lottery and scratchcards: A qualitative study using group interviews. Journal of Adolescence, 25(6), 655–668. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2002.0515
  • Xie, H., Weybright, E. H., Caldwell, L. L., Wegner, L., & Smith, E. A. (2020). Parenting practice, leisure experience, and substance use among South African adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 51(1), 36–55. https://doi. org/10.1080/00222216.2019.1620144