Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

  1. Barrio, Mónica 1
  2. Vigo, Marcos 2
  3. Quintela, Luis A. 2
  4. Becerra, Juan J. 2
  5. García-Herradón, Pedro J. 2
  6. Martínez-Bello, Daniel 3
  7. Fernandez-Sanchez, Francisco I. 1
  8. Prieto, Alberto 2
  9. Cainzos, Juan 2
  10. Peña, Ana I. 2
  1. 1 Xénese E.T.E. Barreiros, Sedes. 15596 Narón (A Coruña)
  2. 2 Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Facultad de Veterinaria de Lugo, Campus Universitario, Dept. Patología Animal. 27002 Lugo
  3. 3 Embriovet S.L. Rois 18 K. 15165 Bergondo (A Coruña)
Spanish journal of agricultural research

ISSN: 1695-971X 2171-9292

Ano de publicación: 2015

Volume: 13

Número: 4

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.5424/SJAR/2015134-8129 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openDialnet editor

Outras publicacións en: Spanish journal of agricultural research


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods.

Referencias bibliográficas

  • Baggiolini M, Boulay F, Badwey JA, Curnutte JT, 1993. Activation of neutrophil leukocytes: chemoattractant receptors and respiratory burst. Faseb J 7: 1004-1010.
  • Barlund CS, Carruthers TD, Waldner CL, Palmer CW, 2008. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle. Theriogenology 69: 714-723.
  • Beam SW, Butler WR, 1999. Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. J Reprod Fert Suppl. 54: 411-424.
  • Bretzlaff K, 1987. Rationale for treatment of endometritis in dairy cows. Vet Clin Food Anim 3: 593-598.
  • Bronicki M, Dembinski Z, Bronicka A, 1996. Effect of lipid metabolism disorders on the blood progesterone level in cows in the perinatal period. Zeszity-Naukowe-Akademii-Rolniczej-w-Szczecinie-Zootechnika 33: 7-13.
  • Butler WR, Smith RD, 1989. Interrelationship between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 72: 767-783.
  • Cavestany D, Blanc JE, Kulcsar M, Uriarte G, Chilibroste P, Meikle A, Febel H, Ferraris A, Krall E, 2005. Studies of the transition cow under a pasture-based milk production system: metabolic profiles. J Vet Med 52: 1-7.
  • Ducker MJ, Haggett RA, Fisher WJ, Morant SV, Bloomfield GA, 1985. Nutrition and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Anim Prod 41: 1-12.
  • Gautam G, Nakao T, Yusuf M, Koike K, 2009. Prevalence of endometritis during the postpartum period and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance in two Japanese dairy herds. Anim Reprod Sci 116: 175-187.
  • Gilbert R, Shin ST, Guard CL, 2005. Prevalence of endometritis and its effect on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology 64: 1879-1888.
  • Gilbert RO, Schwark DS, 1992. Management of peripartum condition in the cow. Vet Clin Food Anim 8: 40-55.
  • Grohn YT, Rajala-Schultz PJ, 2000. Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 60-61: 605-614.
  • Kasimanickam R, Duffield TF, Foster RA, Gartley CJ, Leslie KE, Walton JS, Johnson WH, 2004. Endometrial cytology and ultrasonography for the detection of subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology 62: 9-23.
  • Kasimanickam R, Duffield TF, Foster RA, Gartley CJ, Leslie KE, Walton JS, Johnson WH, 2005. A comparison of the cytobrush and uterine lavage techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology in clinically normal postpartum dairy cows. Can Vet J 46: 255-259.
  • Kessel S, Stroehl M, Meyer HHD, Hiss S, Sauerwein H, Schwarz FJ, & Bruckmaier RM, 2008. Individual variability in physiological adaptation to metabolic stress during early lactation in dairy cows kept under equal conditions. J Anim Sci 86(11): 2903-2912.
  • Lean IJ, Farver TB, Troutt HF, Bruss ML, Galland JC, Baldwin RL, Holmberg CA, Weaver LD, 1992. Time series cross-correlation analysis of postparturient relationships among serum metabolites and yield variables in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 75: 1891-1900.
  • LeBlanc SJ, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Bateman KG, Keefe GP, Walton JS, 2002. Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 85: 2223-2236.
  • Lopdell T, Berg MC, Green MP, Back PJ, 2011. Effect of sub-clinical uterine infection on plasma aminoacid concentrations in early lactation dairy cows. Proc New Zeal Soc Anim Prod 71: 291-295.
  • Lubojacká V, Pechova A, Dvoak R, Drastich P, Kummer V, Poul J, 2005. Liver steatosis following supplementation with fat in Dairy cow diets. Acta Vet Brno 74: 217-224.
  • Mateus L, Lopes da Costa L, Bernardo F, Silva JR, 2002. Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. Reprod Dom Anim 37: 31-35.
  • McCann SM, Kimura M, Karanth S, Yu WH, Mastronardi CA, Rettori V, 2000. The mechanism of action of cytokines to control the release of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones in infection. Ann NY Acad Sci 917: 4-18.
  • Moreira da Silva F, Burvenich C, Massart-Leen AM, Russel-Pinto FF, 1997. Effect of some reproduction hormones on the oxidative burst of bovine neutrophils. Flemish Vet J 66: 297-314.
  • Oltenacu PA, Britt JH, Braun RK, Melleberger RW, 1983. Relationships among type of parturition, type of discharge from genital tract, involution of cervix, and subsequent reproductive performance in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 66: 612-619.
  • Rukkwamsuk T, Kruip TA, Meijer GA, Wensing T, 1999. Hepatic fatty acid composition in periparturient dairy cows with fatty liver induced by intake of a high energy diet in the dry period. J Dairy Sci 82(2): 280-287.
  • Sheldon IM, Lewis GS, LeBlanc S, Gilbert RO, 2006. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65: 1516-1530.
  • Sheldon IM, Williams EJ, Miller ANA, Nash DM, Herath S, 2008. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Vet J 176: 115-121.
  • Spicer LJ, Tucker WB, Adams GD, 1990. Insulin-like growth factor-1 in dairy cows: relationships among energy balance, body condition, ovarian activity, and estrus behavior. J Dairy Sci 73: 929-937.
  • Tietz NW, 1991. Clinical guide to laboratory test, 2nd ed. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • Villa-Godoy A, Hughes TL, Emery RS, Chapin LT, Fogwell RL, 1988. Association between energy balance and luteal function in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 71: 1063-1072.
  • Wade DE, Lewis GS, 1996. Exogenus prostaglandins F2α stimulate utero-ovarian release of PGF2α in sheep: A possible component of the leukocyte mechanism of action of PGF2α. Dom Anim Endocrinol 13: 383-395.