Disinformation, social media, bots, and astroturfingthe fourth wave of digital democracy

  1. Berta García Orosa 1
  1. 1 Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

    Santiago de Compostela, España

    ROR https://ror.org/030eybx10

El profesional de la información

ISSN: 1699-2407

Ano de publicación: 2021

Volume: 30

Número: 6

Páxinas: 2

Tipo: Artigo

DOI: 10.3145/EPI.2021.NOV.03 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openAcceso aberto editor

Outras publicacións en: El profesional de la información


Citas recibidas

  • Citas en Scopus: 6 (17-03-2023)
  • Citas en Dialnet Métricas: 7 (25-02-2023)
  • Citas en Web of Science: 7 (17-03-2023)

JCR (Journal Impact Factor)

  • Ano 2021
  • Factor de impacto da revista: 3.596
  • Factor de impacto sen autocitas: 3.277
  • Article influence score: 0.656
  • Cuartil maior: Q2
  • Área: INFORMATION SCIENCE & LIBRARY SCIENCE Cuartil: Q2 Posición na área: 31/84 (Edición: SSCI)
  • Área: COMMUNICATION Cuartil: Q2 Posición na área: 29/95 (Edición: SSCI)

SCImago Journal Rank

  • Ano 2021
  • Impacto SJR da revista: 0.831
  • Cuartil maior: Q1
  • Área: Library and Information Sciences Cuartil: Q1 Posición na área: 33/249
  • Área: Communication Cuartil: Q1 Posición na área: 74/458
  • Área: Cultural Studies Cuartil: Q1 Posición na área: 29/1142
  • Área: Information Systems Cuartil: Q2 Posición na área: 98/352

Índice Dialnet de Revistas

  • Ano 2021
  • Factor de impacto da revista: 2,050
  • Ámbito: DOCUMENTACIÓN Cuartil: C1 Posición no ámbito: 1/25
  • Ámbito: COMUNICACIÓN Cuartil: C1 Posición no ámbito: 3/67


  • Ciencias Sociais: A

Scopus CiteScore

  • Ano 2021
  • CiteScore da revista: 4.5
  • Área: Library and Information Sciences Percentil: 86

Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)

  • Ano 2021
  • JCI da revista: 1.26
  • Cuartil maior: Q1
  • Área: INFORMATION SCIENCE & LIBRARY SCIENCE Cuartil: Q1 Posición na área: 31/164
  • Área: COMMUNICATION Cuartil: Q1 Posición na área: 43/218


This article reflects on the conceptualization and the salient features of the ecology of e-democracy. The authors identify four distinct waves marked by technological innovations and studied under the control–participation dichotomy. In the first wave, during the 1990s, political actors begin to establish their online presence but without any other notable changes in communication. The second wave takes place from 2004 to 2008 and features the consolidation of social networks and the increasing commodification of audience engagement. The third wave begins to take shape during Obama’s 2008 election campaign, which featured micro-segmentation and the use of big data. The fourth wave, starting in 2016 with the Brexit campaign and the Cambridge Analytica scandal, has been defined by the front and center use of Artificial Intelligence. Some recent phenomena that challenge or buttress the make-up of critical public opinion are the following: a) digital platforms as political actors; b) the marked use of Artificial Intelligence and big data; c) the use of falsehoods as a political strategy, as well as other fake news and deep fake phenomena; d) the combination of hyperlocal and supranational issues; e) technological determinism; f) the search for audience engagement and co-production processes; and g) trends that threaten democracy, to wit, the polarization of opinions, astroturfing, echo chambers and bubble filters. Finally, the authors identify several challenges in research, pedagogy and politics that could strengthen democratic values, and conclude that democracy needs to be reimagined both under new research and political action frameworks, as well as through the creation of a social imaginary on democracy.

Información de financiamento

This article was written under the auspices of the project Digital?native?cybermedia?in?Spain:?Narrative?formats? and?mobile?strategies 縀?TI 爃爀B 爀CM inist缃ry?唀of ? oScf iethnec ep,?aInnnisohv ation? and?Universities, co ?financed by the European?Regional?Development?Fun(dE?rdf).

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